Though there has been lot of enhancements in technology surrounding camera systems in terms of getting a superior image quality, we still face problems caused by sensors – like alignment, exposure etc., lens mount related issues on camera, distortion caused by lenses etc.
This write up is to give an overview about different factors that affect the Image quality.
The term shading describes the light fall-off or color variation from the sensor center to the corners that do not originate from the captured scene. In other words, shading is a decrease of the image brightness from the center to the corners. Shading, therefore, influences image quality by creating unwanted dark or shaded edges.
Most of the camera software comes with software tools to do shading correction following some techniques. This write up is only to list the factors and not the remedy. We shall look into those in our next blog.
Image distortion occurs when the straight lines of an image appear to be deformed or curved unnaturally. There are three types of lens distortion called barrel, pincushion, and waveform (also known as mustache) distortion. It is important to note that distortion occurs differently depending on the lens system and whether the lens can or cannot be removed from the camera.
mage distortion is when the straight lines of an image appear to be deformed or curved unnaturally, creating different distortion types, including barrel, pincushion, and waveform. Distortion is often the result of the lens’s geometrics and can significantly disrupt the image’s quality.
The white balance function of a digital camera ensures the objects in the image field are captured with colors in correlation to the light source.
Without proper white balancing, the colors in an image will not reflect the correct colors perceived by the human eye leading to low image quality. The photographer needs to understand the different white balancing options on the camera to ensure higher image quality.
Lenses are designed so that light refracted at a lens meets at one focal point. Light, however, contains various wavelengths that refract differently. So light rays of different wavelengths (red, blue, and green, for example) may not meet at a common point. When this happens, color fringes appear along the borders of very light or very dark parts of an image affecting the image quality.
Chromatic aberration is often impossible to fully eradicate from a lens, but it is possible to keep it at a minimum.
Noise in an image is the presence of artifacts that do not originate from the original scene content. Generally speaking, noise is a statistical variation of a measurement created by a random process. In imaging, noise emerges as an artifact in the image that appears as a grainy structure covering the image.
Noise can have different forms and appearances within an image and is, in most cases, an unwanted or disturbing artifact that reduces the subjective image quality.
Noise is a byproduct of irregular signal fluctuations that accompany a transmitted signal, but these fluctuations are not a part of the signal and instead obscure the intended target. As a result, one of the most crucial tasks in imaging is finding a solution to create a strong signal with a minimum amount of noise beside it.
There are more factors that affect the image quality. The above are mentioned are few. In our next blog we can see about how to rectify these issues or balance the same to do a successful image related project.
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